Homogenizing out-of-plane cation composition in perovskite solar cells

Liang, Z., Zhang, Y., Xu, H., Chen, W., Liu, B., Zhang, J., Zhang, H., Wang, Z., Kang, D.-H., Zeng, J., Gao, X., Wang, Q., Hu, H., Zhou, H., Cai, X., Tian, X., Reiss, P., Xu, B., Kirchartz, T., Xiao, Z., Dai, S., Park, N.-G., Ye, J., Pan, X.

Nature (2023)

Perovskite solar cells with the formula FA1−xCsxPbI3, where FA is formamidinium, provide an attractive option for integrating high efficiency, durable stability and compatibility with scaled-up fabrication. Despite the incorporation of Cs cations, which could potentially enable a perfect perovskite lattice1,2, the compositional inhomogeneity caused by A-site cation segregation is likely to be detrimental to the photovoltaic performance of the solar cells3,4. Here we visualized the out-of-plane compositional inhomogeneity along the vertical direction across perovskite films and identified the underlying reasons for the inhomogeneity and its potential impact for devices. We devised a strategy using 1-(phenylsulfonyl)pyrrole to homogenize the distribution of cation composition in perovskite films. The resultant p–i–n devices yielded a certified steady-state photon-to-electron conversion efficiency of 25.2% and durable stability.

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