Tetracene Dimers: A Platform for Intramolecular Down- and Up-conversion

Bo, Y., Hou, Y., Thiel, D., Weiß, R., Clark, T., Ferguson, M. J., Tykwinski, R. R., Guldi, D. M., Journal of the American Chemical Society 2023, 145, 18260-18275. 10.1021/jacs.3c02417

Photon energy conversion can be accomplished in many different ways, including the two opposing manners, down-conversion (i.e., singlet fission, SF) and up-conversion (i.e., triplet-triplet annihilation up-conversion, TTA-UC). Both processes have the potential to help overcome the detailed balance limit of single-junction solar cells. Tetracene, in which the energies of the lowest singlet excited state and twice the triplet excited state are comparable, exhibits both down- and up-conversion. Here, we have designed meta-diethynylphenylene- and 1,3-diethynyladamantyl-linked tetracene dimers, which feature different electronic coupling, to characterize the interplay between intramolecular SF (intra-SF) and intramolecular TTA-UC (intra-TTA-UC) via steady-state and time-resolved absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Furthermore, we have used Pd-phthalocyanine as a sensitizer to enable intra-TTA-UC in the two dimers via indirect photoexcitation in the near-infrared part of the solar spectrum. The work is rounded off by temperature-dependent measurements, which outline key aspects of how thermal effects impact intra-SF and intra-TTA-UC in different dimers.

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